What is Ns2?
The network simulator is Ns2 is considered as the open source discrete event simulator which is designed for the research and development based on networking. Ns2 is being accepted for the reliable simulation tool in computer communication networks in both the industry and academic spectrum.
To start the research projects based on Ns2 simulation, the research scholars have to know about the basics of this field. The process of Ns2 includes six significant modules and they are highlighted in the following.
- It is functioning as the routers and the computer hosts
- The objects based on links are used to deliver the packets from one network to another network
- It is functioning as the model packet transmission time which is similar to the packet buffering process
- It includes all the required information and that is located in the header
- It is deployed to generate the packets
- Transport layer agents
- It includes two significant agents such as
- Application model
- It is utilized as the user demand for the data transmission process
Scheduling Events for FTP and CBR Agents
When the simulation topology is created, the user agents have to be configured and the user have to schedule all the events for instance the start and stop of the simulation process. Mainly, the start and stop of simulation is functioning through the commands and they are highlighted in the following.
$ns at $time “finish”
Here, the second command is functional to start the simulation and the first is functioning to schedule the procedure to finish at the end of the simulation process. The traffic buffer is ended through tracing the file and program termination along with the exit routine process gives the definition through the utilization of finishing procedure. It is capable to post the process of information, plot the information and start the network animator (NAM).
Create Mobility Model Using Ns2 Simulator
The mobility of node from one particular location to another location is capable to permit the process through the keyword such as “setdest” in tool command language script (TCL) based on wireless network. The target location of node includes the specifications such as x-coordinate and y-coordinate with the speed. The target location of nodes is functioning is the network area and for instance the mobility model of nodes based on the area of 500m * 500m, the code is deployed to set the mobility and the code is highlighted below.
$ns at 2.0 "$node_($i) setdest $xr $yr 50"
Animation of Wireless Network
The animation of wireless network is supportive for the process of coloring and labeling the nodes and that is used for the differentiation. The nodes are capable to share the wireless medium using wireless channels that are not visible for the physical links in the network name. In addition, it is used to drag and drop the nodes based on NAM tool to view the network in desired topological manner. While the process of animation the packet transmission among wireless nodes are capable to be viewed. When the NAM is clicked, the users are capable to view the properties based on links and packets. The trace annotate option is deployed to interpret the ongoing network process and that is viewed at the bottom of network animation window.
Trace File and AWK Script for Wireless Network
The trace file is created at the end of simulation process and a particular format based on wireless network is followed up with this process and it includes the nodes, time and type about the event and the some data specifications such as.
- Sequence number
- Packet type
- Source address
The trace file is capable to process the wireless network through the utilization of specific AWK scripts with the performance analysis.
Mobile Node: Creating Wireless Topology
The mobile node is denoted as the fundamental Ns node object along with some additional functionalities including the ability to transmit, receiving channel and movement which permits this process that is used for the creation of wireless and mobile simulation environments. The class mobile node is consequential to the fundamental class node and the mobile node is considered as the split object. The features based on mobility include some of the significant process to be implemented in C++ when the network components are plumbing within the mobile nodes such as.
All the above mentioned mobile nodes are implemented in OTCL and it is mobility features are highlighted in the following.
- Maintaining topology boundary
- Periodic position updates
- Node movement
Ns2 Code for Vehicular Ad Hoc Network
The integration of Ns2 with MOVE tool, OpenStreetMap and SUMO are permitting the simulation which is realistic with VANET environment through the functions of road map creation. The nodes based on road side unit and normal vehicles are configured through the capabilities based on various communication range. The IEEE 802.11p protocols are designed for the VANET which is accessible in Ns2 and Ns2 includes the Nakagami radio propagation model which is apt for the VANET process.
Two significant methods are deployed for the communication process in nodes based on VANET and the two methods are vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communication and vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication. The vehicles are communicating with road side unit using the road side routers is the process of V2I communication. The CBR traffic and UDP agent are functional for the establishment among the nodes is called data transmission.
Ns2 Code for Wireless Sensor Networks
The simulation in wireless sensor network based on Ns2 is functioning through the creation of multiple sensor nodes, base station nodes and sinks. The sensor nodes are applicable to configure various sensing and communication range specifications. The power consumption and initial energy specifications used to apply the energy models in sensor nodes. The functions of sensors are based on the deterministic manner and the coverage hole creation and healing process are capable for the simulation process. The cluster based data aggregation, routing process, cluster head selection and cluster formation are also capable for the simulation process. LEACH is one of the cluster based routing protocols and it is strengthened to the existing Ns2 packages. The trace file is created at the end of WSN simulation that includes the residual energy based on nodes in every instance of simulation through the utilization of nodes that are alive and dead, network lifetime and energy consumption are capable to be computed.
Wired Network Setup
The components used for the creation of wired network such as link of duplex, simplex type and nodes are included in Ns2. Some parameters are used for the link configuration and they are queue type, propagation delay and bandwidth and the packet links based on the queues are mentioned in the process. The data communication among the nodes is configured through agents based on application and transport layer in which it needs to be attached with the receiver and sender nodes. Here, we have enlisted the parameters that are functional for the process of wired network.
Protocols and Configuration Parameters
- Routing layer
- Routing protocols
- Link state
- Distance vector
- Receiver driven layered multicast
- Application layer agents
- Video traffic
- Start and stop time of data transmission
- Data transmission interval
- Data rate
- Packet size
- Real audio
- Pareto traffic
- Exponential traffic
- Transport layer agents
Our experienced research professionals have enlisted the list of research topics based on the Ns2 simulation project and that have been recently developed our research professionals in this field and we provide the Ns2 simulation project code also for the scholars.
Latest Research Titles
- Make smart decisions faster: Deciding D2D resource allocation through Stackelberg game guided multi agent deep reinforcement learning
- Optimal network slicing for service oriented networks with flexible routing and guaranteed E2E latency
- Joint sampling time and resource allocation for power efficiency in industrial cyber physical systems
- Multi cloud performance and security driven federated workflow management
- A cooperative task allocation game for multi target imaging in radar networks
In brief, our research team is functioning for your research prerequisites and for your achievements in the research career. So, you can join hands with us from the beginning of your research and we provide the Ns2 simulation project code too. You can also reach us at any stage with your demands and we will help you from that stage. Notably, our well experienced research professionals support you for the great success in your research career.